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Framework

Philibert Delorme designed the framework of the chateau in the 16th century.

Luckily, Bonnemare has been able to conserve the two towers designed by Philibert Delorme. One of these structures can be found in the boudoir of the Chambre de Parade. When the chateau was constructed, there was a central main building evidenced by traces of an attic.

A dendrochronological investigation in August of 2012 revealed that the framework of the chateau was probably constructed in autumn or winter of 1560- 1561.

But who was Philibert Delorme ?

Portrait of Philibert Delorme

Philibert Delorme was born in Lyon, between 1510 and 1516, and died in Paris in 1570. He is buried in the large nave of Notre Dame in Paris. From 1533 to 1536, Delorme studied the monuments of antiquity in Rome. He then become the “Architect for the King” and Inspector of Royal Buildings. King Henry II (1518-1559) and Diane de Poitiers (1499-1566) were especially partial to Delorme’s work.

Around 1550, he invented a structure known as “à petit bois”.

1547- 1552: He worked on the Chateau d’Anet (Eure-et-Loir). Many structures in France were influenced by Philibert Delorme’s work including Fontainebleau, St Léger (Yvelines), Vincennes, Chenonceaux, Villers-Cotterets, St-Germain en Laye and le Palais des Tuileries.

1561: He wrote a treaty on the art of construction in nine books.  “Le Premier Tome de L’Architecture” was re-edited multiple times; chapters X and XI were published separately and entitled "Nouvelles inventions pour bien bastir et a petits fraiz, trouvées n'aguère par Philibert de L'Orme, Lyonnois, Architecte, Conseiller & Aulmonier ordinaire du feu Roy Henry, & Abbé de St Eloy les Noyon".

Philibert Delorme Structure's

Explanation of Principle

Structures constructed according to the system described by Philibert Delorme in “Traité sur la manière de bien bâtir à petits frais" (1561)” are composed of simple curved rafters or wooden plates. There are also alternating field joints that are clamped against one another by wooden keys and dowels. These keys are placed on liernes made of board that cross the rafters. Sometimes les enserrent, entrent à force dans deux mortaises creusées de part et d'autre de chacun de ces arbalétriers.

This method of construction was effectively used to build the two towers à deux ou quatre pentes qu'aux dômes simples ou à imperial. This presents the advantage of using smaller parts to build a structure.  

However, il a l'inconvénient de poser au couvreur des problèmes difficilement solubles car les ardoises ou les tuiles plates adhèrent mal à la courbure des surfaces, et le charpentier doit, par des aménagements judicieux, apporter à cette courbure des modifications qui lui permettent de recevoir la couverture dans de bonnes conditions. (Extrait de "Charpentes d'assemblage", vol. 1, du Centre de Recherches sur les Monuments Historiques)

Sketches of Philibert Delorme’s structures

Chaque chevron forme fermette. Chevrons tous les 0,50 à 0,60 composés de 3 planches qui ont : - 0,21 x 0,027 pour 8 m de portée - 0,27 x 0,041 pour 12 m de portée - 0,35 x 0,054 pour 20 m de portée - 0,35 x 0,067 pour 30 m de portée.

Les liernes (entretoises) ont l'épaisseur des planches et 4 fois leur épaisseur pour largeur. Elles se posent au droit des joints.

Chevauchement des planches Chevauchement des liernes. Ces combles sont chers comme main d'oeuvre, mais ils donnent de jolies voûtes que l'on décore facilement.

Photos des charpentes "à la Philibert Delorme"